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Early, 1914, 1920, 1925, 1930, 1935, 1940, 1941-1945, 1946, 1950, 1955,
1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969,


IN THE EARLY YEARS of its corporate life, starting in 1911, IBM was known as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company. To understand IBM's development, it is nec essary to trace the events leading to C-T- R's formation... The value of tabulating machines was established in the late 19th Century. With the available methods of compiling statistics about the expanding population, the United States census of 1880 took seven years to complete. Meanwhile, Dr. Herman Hollerith, statistician, was devising a series of electrical machines that performed adding and counting operations on data fed into them in the form of punched cards. Hollerith's machines were able to complete the 1890 census in less than three years. . . In 1896, Hollerith formed the Tabulating Machine Co. , with a plant in Washington, D. C. . . . The first computing scale was patented in 1885 by Julius E. Pitrat of Gallipolis, Ohio. His patents were bought by Edward Canby and Orange O. Ozias, businessmen in Dayton, Ohio, who incorporated the Computing Scale Co. in 1891... A mechanical time recorder was devised in 1888 by Willard Bundy, jeweler, of Auburn, N. Y. . . . The next year, his brother, Harlow, organized the Bundy Manufacturing Company to produce time recorders. The company later relocated in Endicott, N. Y. ; as the International Time Recording Co.... In 1911, at the suggestion of merchant-banker Charles R. Flint, the International Time Recording Co. , the Computing Scale Company and the Tabulating Co. merged and incorporated in New York State as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company... It manufactured commercial scales, tabulating and time-recording equipment.

1914: Thomas J. Watson, 40, becomes C-T-R's president. (He had formerly worked for National Cash Register, where he was a branch manager at 24 and, later, general sales manager. One of his many innovations was the "Think" concept which he introduced at a Dayton, Ohio sales meeting. In 1913, he left NCR) . . . He codifies three basic policies: profit for customers, profit for employees, profit for stockholders. . . A hundred shares of C -T -R stock are worth less than $3, 000. The company has 770 stockholders. . . Endicott plant devoted primarily to producing time-recording equipment. . . Dayton plant makes scales. . . Washington produces cards. . . Use of accounting machines begins to spread. The accounting product line includes mechanical key punch, hand-operated gang punch, vertical sorter and non- printing tabulator. . . Customers include railroads, chemicals, utilities and life insurance companies. . . By end of the year, company personnel grows to 1, 346, and gross income from sales, service and rentals in U. S. is four million dollars.

1915: First convention is held, forerunner of Hundred Percent Club Conventions. . . Sales force is reorganized and strengthened.

1916: First steps taken in setting up educational program: an education department is established with its own manager, and a study session for employees is held in New York. The program is later to expand to include sales, customer engineering, manufacturing, customer and general education courses.

1917: C-T-R enters Canadian market under name of International Business Machines Co. , Ltd. . . . Brazil office opens.

1919: IBM is introduced in Europe. . . Electric synchronized time clock system is introduced.

1920: Printing tabulator is introduced. At start of year, company has over 3, 000 employees.. . Gross income triples since 1914.

1923: Sales posts open in Latin America and Far East . . . Electric key punch is introduced.

1924: C-T-R adopts name of International Business Machines . . . Quarter Century Club organized . . . Rotary Card Press developed to produce cards at high speed . . . IBM introduces self-regulating time system . . . First issue of "Business Machines" appears . . . Plant locations now include Endicott; Washington, D. C. ; Dayton, Ohio; Canada; France; Germany.

1925: IBM enters Philippine market . . . Horizontal sorting machine introduced . . . First stock dividends paid, at rate of 20%.

1926: IBM stock splits three for one . . . All three company divisions win grand prizes for products at Sesquicentennial Exposition in Philadelphia . . . Company has 3, 953 employees.

1928: Punched card made to hold 80 columns, almost double its previous capacity . . . Subtracting-accounting machine introduced . . . Customer Engineering training course is organized . . . IBM establishes Suggestion Program for employees.

1929: Stock market crashes, but IBM declares 5% stock dividend . . . Gross income passes the 18 million mark.

1930: Despite depression, IBM increases its employment, trains more salesmen and increases engineering efforts. (This pays off when, six years later, the company is able to provide machines and services for a record-breaking order for the Government's new Social Security program. )

1931: Accounting machines are introduced in Japan . . . New products: the 400 alphabetic accounting and the first of the 600 series of computers, which handles multiplication and division . . . First permanent installation of the Filene-Finlay Translator is set up at League of Nations in Geneva.

1933: New education building and engineering laboratory built at Endicott . . . Development of Carroll Carriage improves alphabetical accounting machines by automatic handling of special forms and variable line spacing.

1934: Company sells Dayton Scale Division to Hobart Manufacturing Co. . . . The 405 alphabetical accounting machine is introduced . . . Group life insurance plan is initiated for employees . . . IBM drops piecework.

1935: First commercially successful electric typewriter is placed on market by IBM Electric Typewriter Division (acquired from Electromatic Typewriter, Inc. of Rochester, N. Y. two years earlier) . . . First issue of THINK appears . . . International proof machine, to clear bank checks, is introduced.

1937: Although paid holidays are fairly unknown in major industries, IBM announces policy of paying employees for six holidays . . . A paid vacation plan is also introduced . . . Gross income passes $30 million . . . There are over 10, 000 employees . . . The 77 collator appears and test-scoring machine is introduced.

1940: IBM has 12, 656 employees . . . IBM announces military service benefits plan for employees entering armed forces.

1941 - 1945: World War II: IBM offers entire facilities to government for war effort. Company accepts only nominal one percent profit on war materials . . . Among war-time products are: naval and aircraft fire control instruments; Browning automatic rifles; .30 calibre carbines; director and prediction units for 90 mm anti-aircraft guns; bomb sights and aircraft super-charger impellers. Washington card plant turns out war bond assemblies. In addition, thousands of IBM accounting machines handle war-time paperwork in Washington, D. C., and on the war fronts IBM accounting machines in mobile units follow U. S. troops in battle. Company builds plant at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. in 1942 and adds extension to Endicott. Both plants win Army-Navy "E" awards . . . In 1944, IBM's first large-scale computer, the automatic sequence controlled calculator, is presented to Harvard University . . . Same year, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory is founded at Columbia University . . . In 1944, company announces a sickness and accident pay plan, providing payments to employees absent for those reasons . . . A year later, the retirement plan is announced . . . At war's end, armistice documents are typed on IBM electric typewriter.

1946: IBM announces first small commercial electronic calculator, the 603 . . . IBM hospitalization plan for employees is announced . . . Family Dinners are launched . . . Employees now total 22, 492 ... Stock splits five for four.

1948: IBM's first large-scale electronic machine, the selective sequence electronic calculator, is announced . . . Gross income is $156, 397, 720 . . . The 604 is introduced.

1949: World Trade Corporation is formed as an independently-operated but wholly-owned subsidiary to handle foreign operations . . . The 407 is introduced . . . Total employment now 27,236.

1950: Korean War: IBM again places facilities at government's disposal. The company is assigned military projects including bombing-navigational systems for Air Force bombers and giant, high-speed electronic calculators for the country's air defense.

1952: Thomas J. Watson Jr. becomes IBM President . . . IBM announces the 701, its first large-scale electronic data processing system designed primarily for scientific calculations . . . Company now has over 40, 000 employees.

1953: Suggestion Plan's top award is increased from $2, 500 to $5,000 . . . Company announces 702 computer for commercial use, and the 650, an intermediate size electronic computer to handle widely diversified accounting and scientific computations.

1954: A new plant is completed at Greencastle, Ind. . . . A heat treat-plating plant is built at Endicott . . . New research laboratory completed at Poughkeepsie . . . The faster, more powerful 704 succeeds the 701, and the 705 replaces the 702 . . . Stock splits five for four . . . The fastest, most powerful electronic computer of its time is developed and built by IBM for U. S. Navy's Bureau of Ordnance . . . IBM now has over 50,000 employees.

1955: Electric Typewriter and Military Products become autonomous divisions . . . IBM engineers develop magnetic core storage units . . . New products: 608 transistor calculator, 858 Cardatype accounting machine, a series of high speed printers, the 83 sorter and the central control system (introduced by Time Equipment Division to control mechanical devices electronically) . . . Gross income: $563, 548, 792.

1956: Company enters into a consent decree with government, which began anti-trust suit against IBM in 1952 . . . Thomas J. Watson Jr. becomes chief executive of IBM . . . IBM Family Major Medical Plan announced . . . New products: 305 RAMAC, 650 RAMAC, the 27 Card Proof Punch and 28 Printing Card Proof Punch. Electric Typewriter Division announces an electronic "reading" device for electric typewriters, and an electronic input-output device to automatical ly type work done by computers. Time Equipment Division introduces automatic production recording system . . . Thomas J. Watson Sr. dies at 82 . . . Construction is completed on Kingston plant . . . Military Products Division continues production of its large-scale computer for vast air warning system known as SAGE, and advanced bombing and navigational systems known as BRANE, for the U. S. Air Force . . . Announced at top management conference in Williamsburg, Va. : IBM divisionalizes into six autonomous divisions and the subsidiary World Trade Corporation. Also, Corporate Staff formed to advise and assist the divisions in specialized areas . . . Vice Chairman of the Board, J. G. Phillips, retires . . . Stock splits five for four . . . Total employment figure reaches 72, 504.

1957: IBM gross annual income exceeds billion dollar level. Company makes public offering of 1, 050, 233 shares of additional stock to help finance continued growth . . . Service Bureau Corporation is formed as wholly-owned but independently-operated subsidiary . . . T. J. Watson Memorial Scholarship program is established . . . 709 computer is announced . . . Company increases paid holidays to eight . . . Plant and laboratory facilities are completed at Owego and San Jose, and Sherman Card Plant is also completed. Data Processing Division moves headquarters to White Plains, N. Y. . . . Stock splits two for one . . . Employees now total 83, 588.

1958: All those workers previously paid on hourly basis are placed on salary . . . Electric Typewriter Division, during its 25th anniversary year, produces its 1, 000, 000th type writer . . . Stock purchase plan allows employees to buy IBM stock at 85% of market price . . . Company announces Tuition Refund Plan for employees' after-hours education . . . IBM sells Time Equipment Division to Simplex Time Recorder Co. . . . New products: 7090 high capacity computer, 7070 intermediate data processing system, series 50 basic accounting machines and 632 electronic typing calculator . . . Plants are completed at Rochester, Minn.; Dayton, N. J.; and Lexington, Ky. Construction starts on a card plant at Concord, Mass. . . . First issue of "Management Briefing" appears . . . 305 RAMAC answers questions on world history in ten languages at Brussels World's Fair . . . 704 computer aids in design and tracking of space missiles and in monitoring missile trajectories during firing.

1959: Company announces Matching Grants program to match employees' gifts to institutions of higher learning up to $1,000 . . . Maximum Suggestion Plan Award is raised from $5, 000 to $25, 000 . . . New products include: 1401 data processing system; 1620 scientific computer; and 357 data collection system . . . IBM 9090 reservations system permits automatic airlines reservations through central control . . . Company reorganizes Data Processing Division into Data Systems, General Products, and a new marketing division which retains Data Processing title. Military Products Division is renamed Federal Systems Division. Advanced Systems Development, a new division, is set up to explore new markets . . . Stockholders meet at New York City's Coliseum, vote 3 for 2 stock split . . . Federal Systems Division moves headquarters to Rockville, Md. . . . Construction starts on Yorktown, N. Y., Research Center and a card plant in Campbell, Calif. The Concord, Mass. card plant is completed. World Trade Corporation opens new Belgium headquarters and dedicates Blaricum (The Netherlands) European Education Center . . . Company has 108, 915 stock- holders and 94, 912 employees.

1960: Improvements in Vacation Plan are announced . . . Tuition Refund Plan increases from $150 to $250 a year maximum . . . New products being produced include: solid-state 7000 series computers to replace the 700 series of vacuum-tube machines; 1410 computer; STRETCH, the world's most powerful computing system; "Executary, " Electric Typewriter Division's new dictation equipment; TELE-PROCESSING, a concept to overcome time and distance in data handling . . . RAMAC scores Olympic games in California, tallies votes at both political conventions and processes presidential election returns on TV . . . Data Processing Division opens first of Datacenters to make IBM computers available to customers on an hourly basis . . . IBM computers provide data for launching and tracking Project Echo, nation's pioneering experiment in space communications . . . Mark I language translator, developed for Air Force, translates Russian into English . . . Construction starts on a materials distribution center at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., and an addition to the Endicott, N. Y. product development laboratory . . . Supplies Division completes Campbell, Calif. card plant and opens a new card design center in Houston . . . Company starts Systems Research Institute as first graduate level school in computer industry to educate people for advanced work in data processing systems engineering . . . World Trade Corporation completes a manufacturing plant in Argentina, expands its plants in Scotland, France and Japan, and starts construction on new laboratory buildings in France, Holland, Germany, and a new office building in West Berlin.

1961: Family Hospitalization Plan is improved . . . Employees are reimbursed for 75% of eligible educational expenses under improved Tuition Refund Plan . . . Maximum on suggestion awards increased to $75, 000. Largest suggestion award in company history -- $56, 000 -- paid to two employees . . . Company launches new Invention Award Plan for significant inventions by employees . . . IBM announces program to help employees build and equip fallout shelters . . . L. H. LaMotte retires. He continues as a member of Board of Directors and as Chairman of Executive and Finance Committee . . . T. J. Watson, Jr. elected Chairman of the Board . . . A. L. Williams becomes President . . . New products and applications: WALNUT, a prototype information retrieval system developed for a government agency; "Selectric, " an electric typewriter without type bars or a movable carriage; 1710 control system; IBM Hypertape System; 1301 disk storage file; high-speed 1404 printer . . . Thomas J. Watson Research Center at Yorktown, N. Y., officially opened; annual meeting held there at which stockholders vote for a 3 for 2 stock split and for an improved Employee Stock Purchase Plan . . . Components Division is formed to handle development, manufacture and purchase of solid-state components used in production of IBM data processing equipment . . . After trial period at Yorktown, N. Y., IBM decides it will move its Corporate headquarters to Armonk, N.Y. General Products Division and Data Systems Division decide to move to new headquarters near White Plains, N. Y. . . . Construction begins on following facilities: development labs in Poughkeepsie and San Jose; a new Supplies Division headquarters, Dayton, N. J. ; a research lab in Ruschlikon, Switzerland . . . IBM has 116, 276 employees and 197, 509 stockholders.

1962: Improvements in Employee Benefits are announced, covering retirement, vacation, holiday, family hospitalization and major medical plans . . . Company joins President Kennedy's Plan for Progress program, reasserting IBM's policy of equal job opportunity for all individuals . . . First Invention Award Dinner is held to honor 34 outstanding IBM inventors . . . New products: low cost 1440 data processing system; the 7094, one of the most powerful computing systems ever offered by IBM; the 7010 data processing system; the 7710 Data Communication Unit, which permits computers at different loca- tions to exchange information via high-speed facilities; the 7750, which allows a single computer to communicate with large numbers of widely-separated -terminals; the 1420 bank transit system; the 1062 teller terminal; the 6400 Magnetic Ledger Accounting Machine . . . Work begins on IBM guidance computer which will help steer the two-man Gemini capsule . . . IBM also delivers the first guidance computer for the Saturn series of rockets . . . IBM scientists succeed in operating a semiconductor diode laser powered directly by an electric current rather than an external light source . . . An experimental thin film memory is demonstrated which operates, at a speed of 100 billionths of a second . . . Using the Telstar satellite, IBM engineers send computer information back and forth between Endicott and La Gaude, France . . . Construction starts on a Components manufacturing facility at East Fishkill, N. Y., on an extension to the Lexington Electric Typewriter plant, on an addition to the Rochester, Minn. plant, and on a development laboratory at San Jose. Supplies Division moves into new headquarters at Dayton, N. J. Development laboratories are completed at Poughkeepsie and San Jose . . . World Trade Corporation completes development engineering laboratory at La Gaude, France; dedicates an administration building in West Berlin; builds an education center at Cuernavaca, Mexico; and opens Datacenters in Dusseldorf (Germany), Tokyo and Toronto.

1963: Company appoints first eight IBM Fellows in a new Fellowship program for honoring company scientists, engineers and other professionals who have sustained records of innovation and technical achievement . . . Improvements are announced in the eligibility requirements for the Vacation Plan . . . Company forms three new divisions: the Industrial Products Division, the Real Estate and Construction Division, and the Research Division, which was formerly a Corporate Staff function . . . New products and applications: IBM 7094 II, most powerful computer in the company's current product line; an electronic filing system -- composed of new IBM 1302 disk storage files -- capable of storing over one billion characters of information; the 1401-G, designed for customers who need to process punched card information at great speed and in large volume; the 1460, which can process information nearly twice as fast as the 1401; 1240 banking system; and IBM MicroProcessing equipment. The company begins deliveries of the IBM 1440 and 6400 data -handling machines. IBM introduces several different kinds of TELE-PROCESSING systems, including the IBM 1030 data collection system, the IBM 1050 data communications terminal and the IBM 7740 communication control unit . . . IBM people and computing systems used in National Aeronautics and Space Administration's ground-based control network which tracks Mercury Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper on his 546, 000 mile orbital flight around the earth . . . Components Division completes a manufacturing plant in East Fishkill, N. Y. Electric Typewriter Division completes an extension to the Lexington plant. General Products Division completes an addition to the Rochester, Minn., plant. Research Division dedicates new facility for its laboratory in Zurich, Switzerland . . . In World Trade, a new plant near Bombay, India, starts production of punched card accounting equipment. A plant in Sindelfingen, West Germany, begins deliveries of IBM 1440 systems. A new development engineering laboratory is dedicated at La Gaude, France, and another is established in Vienna, Austria . . . IBM has 137, 612 employees and 232, 761 stockholders.

1964: Company celebrates "50 Years of Progress" with 80, 000 IBMers and guests at 231 Family Dinner and Quarter Century Club gatherings . . . IBM Day at the New York World's Fair has General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Mayor Robert F. Wagner and Robert Moses, president of the World's Fair Corporation, as featured speakers. More than two million people visit IBM pavilion during Fair season . . . Chairman Thomas J. Watson, Jr. , receives Medal of Freedom, highest civil honor the U. S. president can bestow . . . T. V. Learson and A. K. Watson named senior vice presidents . . . Company moves corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, N. Y. . . . Company acquires new subsidiary: Science Research Associates, Chicago publisher of educational materials and tests; forms the new Field Engineering Division; changes the name of Electric Typewriter Division to Office Products Division . . . System/360, a new concept in IBM computers, spanning almost the entire performance range of IBM's present line of computers, and incorporating microelectronics, is introduced on April 7, in the most important product announcement in company history . . . Subsequently, IBM introduces the 1800 data acquisition and control system; as well as a graphic data processing system permitting computer-stored information to be displayed graphically on a screen and changed with a light-sensitive pen . . . American Air Lines SABRE system, using IBM computers and linking 1, 000 ticket sales desks in 65 U. S. cities, goes into full operation. IBM also introduces several tele-processing units and systems and the IBM Magnetic Tape SELECTRIC typewriter, which types automatically error-free copy . . . IBM scientists develop an experimental device which can electronically position in millionths of a second a laser light beam carrying written and pictorial information; a solid state optical scanning device which converts images into electrical signals; and a laser transmitter that sends voice and other signals great distances over laser light beams . . . IBM awarded contract to build part of moon rockets -- largest space contract in company's history . . . IBM computers help speed results of winter and summer Olympics . . . Company completes new plants at Huntsville, Ala. , and East Fishkill, N. Y. . . . A World Trade Corporation education center is established in Ibadan, Nigeria . . . IBM has 149,834 employees and 266,086 stockholders, after a five for four stock split.

1965: IBM Pavilion completes two years at the New York World's Fair with more than 10-million visitors . . . World Trade Corporation gross income passes the billion dollar mark for the first time . . . Improvements announced in Survivors Income, Major Medical, Group Life Insurance, and early retirement . . . First System/360 shipped one year after introduction; Model 44 medium-sized computer designed for scientific applications announced; Models 65 and 75 step up computing power at high end of System/360 performance range; Model 67 for time-sharing and improved Model 30 processor introduced . . . Other products: IBM 1130, low-cost, desk-sized computer introduced; new 2740 and 2741 typewriter communications terminals link secretary to computer; 2321 data cell drive announced to speed use of real-time systems . . . New 28-ounce, battery-operated Executary, Model 224 is announced; the 2361, largest computer memory ever built, shipped to NASA Spacecraft Center, Houston . . . The Document Processing System is introduced to prepare computer-printed documents for distribution in one operation . . . IBM scientists complete the most precise computation of the moon's orbit; develop a fabrication technique for connecting hundreds of circuits on a tiny silicon wafer . . . A 59-pound, on-board IBM guidance computer is used on all Gemini flights, including the first spaceship rendezvous . . . Computer-based communications network links IBM's major engineering, manufacturing, and administrative facilities in U. S. and Europe to coordinate work on System/360 . . . First IBM-donated computer centers in European universities open in London, Copenhagen, and Pisa, Italy . . . Science Research Associates operates Rodman Job Corps Center as part of Nation's "War on Poverty" . . . Construction starts on manufacturing and development facilities near Raleigh, N. C. , and Boulder, Colo. . . . Company completes plant and laboratory additions at Kingston, Owego, Poughkeepsie, and Yorktown Heights, all in New York State, and office locations at Endicott, N. Y. , and Philadelphia . . . World Trade starts construction of a manufacturing and development facility in Mainz, Germany; a manufacturing facility in Vimercate, Italy; and manufacturing additions at Montpellier, France, and Amsterdam, Netherlands . . . IBM has 172, 000 employees worldwide and 275, 650 stockholders.

1966: IBM announces a new employee benefit, the Family Plan; a new special care program to assist employees with handicapped children; and improvements in the Family Hospitali zation Plan, the Major Medical Plan, and the retirement program . . . Corporate Office established to conduct overall affairs of the corporation, comprised of T. J. Watson, Jr. , A. L. Williams, A. K. Watson, and T. Vincent Learson, newly-elected president of the company; A. L. Williams named chairman of the Executive Committee; A. K. Watson elected vice chairman of the Board; Lyle M. Spencer, Science Research Associates president, named to IBM Board . . . Mrs. Jeannette Kittredge Watson, widow cf Thomas J. Watson, Sr. , dies at 82 . . . New stock offering to shareholders and 50 per cent stock split approved at annual meeting . . . Supplies Division name changed to Information Records Division . . . Data Processing Group organized with Frank T. Cary as general manager . . . New products: IBM SELECTRIC Composer and the Magnetic Tape SELECTRIC Composer for high quality cold-type composition; 1287 Optical Reader, which reads hand-printed numbers and five characters; 9370 Document Reproducer; IBM 1500, first system specifically designed for computer-assisted instruction; IMPACT, a set of computer programs for inventory control of retail operations using System/360; 1080 data acquisition system for hospital and laboratory tests . . . IBM computers process some 19 million Medicare identification cards for the Social Security Administration . . . System/4 Pi, special family of aircraft and space computers, announced . . . Service Bureau Corporation begins implementation of a nationwide computer network which will link 125 System/360s in over 80 offices . . . Federal Systems personnel move into new facility near Gaithersburg, Md. . . . Office Products Division announces a plant and engineering complex at Austin, Texas . . . Company acquires a 550-acre site at Boca Raton, Florida . . . IBM World Trade begins construction of a manufacturing plant in Fujisawa, Japan; dedicates a plant in Vimercate, Italy, and a laboratory at Lidingo, Sweden; completes construction of a new manufacturing facility in Mainz, West Germany, and announces plans to build a second manufacturing plant at Havant, near Portsmouth, England . . . IBM has 198,186 employees worldwide and 328, 427 stockholders.

1967: Management Committee of senior executives formed to assist Corporate Office in management of overall affairs of the corporation . . . G. Keith Funston, retiring presi dent of N. Y. Stock Exchange, elected to IBM Board of Directors . . . T. J. Watson, Jr. , named "businessman of year" in Saturday Review magazine poll . . . Arthur K. Watson elected president of International Chamber of Commerce . . . IBM exhibits computer systems at Canada's Expo '67 . . . SPEAK UP! program, begun in 1959, answers its 32, 000th question from domestic employees . . . Products and services introduced: System/360 Model 25; IBM Paper Tape SELECTRIC Composer; 2680 CRT printer for publishing; QUIKTRAN 2, improved version of remote QUIKTRAN terminal system; 1259 magnetic character reader/sorter; Series/500 magnetic tape; Binary Synchronous Communications, an IBM technique which regulates and speeds flow of data characters into transmission lines . . . Cartographic Scanner converts maps to binary data for computer processing . . . IBM scientists produce first monolithic integrated germanium circuits . . . make important new gains in laser technology . . . discover and prove a series of formulas which give minimum number of steps required for addition, multiplication and comparison of numbers . . . IBM ground team plays key role in successful Saturn V test flight . . . Trillion-bit photo-digital storage system built for Atomic Energy Commission . . . Customer support now includes 40 installation centers, 17 field systems centers, four data acquisition and control centers, and six scientific centers . . . IBM computer processes data for FBI at new National Crime Information Center in Washington . . . Data communications experiment completed between IBM computing centers in U. S. and Paris via satellite . . . World Trade Corporation establishes European Systems Research Institute . . . Real Estate and Construction Division acquires sites in Norman, Okla., and Manassas, Va. . . . Construction begins on new Data Processing Division headquarters in White Plains, N. Y. . . . Design underway on the manufacturing facility at Boca Raton, Fla. . . . Expansion completed on manufacturing plant at Fujisawa, Japan, and a technical center at Diegem, Belgium . . . Expansion completed on manufacturing facilities at Mainz, West Germany; Amsterdam, The Netherlands; and Greenock, Scotland . . . IBM closes year with 221, 866 employees worldwide and 359, 495 stockholders . . . A 2 1/2% stock dividend is paid.

1968: Changes in the way IBM charges for and supports its data processing equipment are under intensive study; results are scheduled for mid-1969 announcement . . . Control Data Corporation files a civil antitrust suit against IBM; CDC's allegations are denied . . . Huyler VanBuren, Kingston technician, receives a $75, 000 suggestion award, possibly the largest in American industry; 33 other employees share inventions and technical contribution awards totaling $370, 000 . . . Frank T. Cary, IBM senior vice president, is elected to the Board of Directors . . . Richard A. Giesen is named president of Science Research Associates following the death of Lyle M. Spencer, co-founder and president . . . IBM's Bedford -Stuyvesant manufacturing plant is established in Brooklyn, and a Harlem Street Academy is sponsored by IBM to aid school dropouts; these are two of over 100 programs undertaken by IBM in the Equal Opportunity area . . . Apollo mission support at Federal Systems Division plays a vital role in the first circumlunar flight; NASA delves deeper into theoretical space exploration, using two System/360 Model 95s . . . Additions to System/360 are announced: the Model 85; two versions of the Model 20; the 50 data inscriber and 2495 cartridge reader, which offer a new data entry technique for System/360; two display units, the 2265 and 2760; a display copier, the 2285; and the 1288 optical reader . . . Customer engineers complete 100, 000 hours of instruction through a System/360 that "teaches" at over 200 branch offices . . . New models of IBM's EXECUTARY dictation and transcription units are introduced . . . Science Research Associates adds new educational programs in mathematics, reading, social studies, language arts and science . . . Consolidated gross income reaches $6, 888, 549, 209, increasing $1. 5 billion over '67 on a high-level of outright computer sales; World Trade gross income passes the $2-billion level for the first time . . . Plans are announced for a 52-story office building in Chicago; over two million square feet of new World Trade facilities and expansions are completed or are under construction in ten countries; almost 6 million square feet are added or are under construction in the U. S. . . . In R&D: a basic patent is received on Gunn effect devices . . . IBM scientists develop an experimental laser optical memory system . . . Widely used SLT modules achieve a reliability rate 1, 000 times that of earlier vacuum tubes . . . IBM employment reaches 241, 000, an increase of 20, 000 over the previous year . . . at year end, stockholders number 501, 390.

1969: Thomas J. Watson, Jr. , terms the decade of the Sixties "the most exciting and productive in the more than 50-year history of the company" . . . Under a new IBM marketing policy, most systems engineering activities, many future computer programs, and most customer education courses are offered for a charge . . . The Federal Government files an antitrust suit against IBM; four civil antitrust actions (three filed this year) are consolidated; IBM denies the allegations and will defend all cases vigorously . . . The General Systems Division is formed to develop and manufacture lowcost data processing equipment and related programming systems support . . . IBM offers a new service, Custom Contract Services, under which the company will design and install. customers' data processing systems . . . Two new computers are announced--System/3 for small businesses, with a new small punched card; and System/360 Model 195, IBM's most powerful computer; both use new IBM monolithic integrated circuits . . . Major new products are introduced in tele-processing: The IBM 2770 Data Communication System enables a customer to use a variety of input and output devices conveniently; the IBM 2790 Data Communication System collects and processes data from more than 1, 000 remote points on a manufacturing plant floor . . . IBM computers help NASA put the first men on the moon; an on-board computer in the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory II operates for a full year . . . The IBM Mag Card "Selectric" typewriter is introduced . . . In research, IBM is developing experimental devices using laser beams to store huge amounts of information, as well as techniques for word recognition, speaker identification, and advanced audio response . . . An experimental automatic airline ticket vendor is demonstrated . . . Over 250, 000 suggestions are made by employees, and IBM pays more than $3.3-million for those accepted . . . IBM customer engineers take 400, 000 hours of computer-assisted instruction . . . A total of 7 1/2-million sq. ft. of new construction is completed or in process at IBM sites in the U. S. ; design work starts on an additional 4-million sq. ft. ; construction begins on 52-story Chicago office building . . . World Trade Corporation adds or is completing 3. 6-million sq. ft. in its biggest building year . . . Albert L. Williams, former IBM president, retires . . . John M. Fox and Cyrus R. Vance are elected to the Board of Directors . . . Total employment reaches 258, 000 . . . The number of stockholders is 549, 000.

1970: System/370 is introduced in the company's biggest product announcement year since 1964. Able to run System/360 programs, the new system includes Models 165, 155, and 145 (the first general purpose business computer to use monolithic circuits in all memory and logic functions) ... New, low-cost System/3 Model 6 is introduced, with ability to process standard ledger cards and switch easily from business applications to complex mathematical problem-solving ... More than 1, 500 low-cost System/3 Model 10s are installed in 1970, the first full year on the market ... Sensorbased System/7 is introduced for process, manufacturing, and laboratory applications ... Advanced peripheral products are announced: 800-million-character- IBM 3330 disk file; IBM 3803/ 3420 magnetic tape subsystem; 2, 000 line-per-minute IBM 3211 printer; IBM 129 card data recorder, a keypunch with an electronic memory; IBM 2721, a portable audio terminal which is built into an attache case, enabling the user to dial his computer from any telephone ... More than 80 new program products are introduced . . . IBM Copier is placed on market in both U. S. and overseas ... IBM computers in Houston assist flight controllers in dramatic rescue of Apollo 13 astronauts ... A new version of IBM's aerospace computer -- System /4 Pi, Model AP -- is introduced ... IBM research scientists use electron beam to make electronic components so small that detail can be seen only through electron microscope ... College division is established by Science Research Associates ... Close to 10-million sq. ft. of new construction are completed, in process, or in design at IBM sites in the U. S. . .. World Trade Corporation expands its worldwide manufacturing space by 1.3 million sq. ft. and reveals plans to build major new manufacturing plants in Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan ... IBM Japan's exhibit at Expo '70 in Osaka attracts over 9-million visitors, a record for any IBM exhibit in a single year ... IBM announces plans for office buildings in urban renewal areas of Baltimore, and Columbus, Ohio ... Arthur K. Watson, vice chairman of IBM and chairman of the board of IBM World Trade Corporation, resigns to become U. S. Ambassador to France ... Elected to the board of directors are Gilbert E. Jones, Nicholas deB. Katzenbach, William McChesney Martin, Jr. , and Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller ... IBM employment reaches 269, 000. Stockholders number 587, 000 ... Consolidated gross income reaches $7.5-billion. Gross income from operations outside the U. S. approaches $3-billion. At year-end, worldwide backlog of orders for data processing equipment is at a record high.


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