return to main 1401 Restoration Page
The bios of the 2000s IBM 1401 2000s Restoration Team are here

IBM 1401 1950s Team Bios

including goals, architecture, design, software, production, marketing teams

The following is a list of team members, with links to their listings
WWAM, World Wide
Accounting Machine

Karl Ganzhorn
Papo, Maurice
IBM 1401 teams
Hardware
Ahearn, George R
Bloom, Earl
Branscomb, Chuck
Ingram, Jim
McCarthy, Justin
Pokoski, John
Underwood, Fran
Software
Macklin, David
Mokotoff, Gary
Palmer, Jack
Smillie, Stan
Wertheim, John
Marketing
Jacobs, Shel
Swanson, Jan
Higher
Management
John Haanstra
after 1961
1403
Berwin Darrow
Gene Darrow
- provided this list
John Drejza
Don Manning
Robert Gibson
Robert Greaves
Jim Walsh
Tim Hayes
- Hammer Unit
- Hydraulic Carriage

Related web pages -

A constraint on the 1401 system design - "solid state in '58" dictate prevented the 1401 system from using tubes.

There is one, in a test/alignment circuit - really hidden !! You have to take the 1402 apart to find it. ;-))
Delco developed the high-voltage germanium power transistors for the 1403 hammer drivers.


"Dawn of a New Era"
Shel Jacobs with 1401 chassis mockups (note the odd 1401 lights panel) used for the initial announcement pics -- (ironically taken at sunset, on the hill above Endicott plant.)
Shel says: "This was one of several location alternatives considered for the announcement video. We were moving the boxes between buildings. It was considered as part of the theme, "Dawn of a New Era". I still remember a comment made by one of the movers - "I'm glad there isn't a lake nearby, we'd be trying to put these things into rowboats.". The video was shot over a 3 day sleepless weekend.
"I'd suggest using "The start of another day".

From Jud McCarthy
" ... pictures taken of Chuck Branscomb, Jim Ingram and myself in Raleigh, NC on 2/21/09. I am the tall dark and handsome guy in the middle."


Ahearn, George R - george dot ahearn at comcast dot net





dig the signatures !
GEORGE R. AHEARN - PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
Education:
  • 1956 Bachelor of Electrical Engineering, Villanova University, Villanova Pa.
  • 1959 Master Electrical Engineering Catholic University of America, Washington DC sponsored by National Security Agency
    Military: Assigned as a U.S. Navy officer to the National Security Agency developing engineering equipment.
    1958: Joined IBM at the Glendale Laboratory in Endicott N.Y. Assigned to a Special System being developed for the U.S. Government. Manager Wayne Brooke who reported to Peter Fagg, who reported to Bob O. Evans.
    1958 Special System cancelled then transferred to the 1401 Central Processor development, reporting to Russ Rowley. Remained in that department throughout the design, debug, and Product Test of the ?A? model which qualified the product for announcement.
    1960 Assigned to a department managed by Fran Underwood who had responsibility, among other efforts, for the attachment of a RAMAC disk file to the 1401. This effort was joined by several engineers on loan from IBM San Jose and together we designed the integration of the IBM 1405 to the IBM 1401 System.
    1963 Assigned as the 1401 System representative on the team which developed the 1401 Emulator For System / 360. This was a firmware (microcode) effort written to run on the microprocessor within the System / 360 Model 30.
    1964 Engineering assignments with follow on systems within the 1401 family.
    1965 Assigned to the staff of the Engineering Manager of Small Commercial Systems, Gilbert Baskin.
    1966 Assigned manager of the IBM 1285 Optical Character Recognition product development. This s a journal roll reader with application in the retail industry.
    1967 Transferred to IBM San Jose development laboratory. Managed development of the IBM 2835 fixed head file control unit.
    1977 Managed the Advanced Systems Technology department which researched the design, performance simulations, and cache management algorithms for high performance subsystems including RAM disk and magnetic disk storage.
    1980 Program manager for direct access storage subsystems. Responsible for disk storage controllers then in current production as well as development of future products in that class

    I live in Los Gatos. [California]


  • Bloom, Earl
    Preliminary - swak at prodigy dot net

    I had nothing to do directly with the 1403 printer mechanisms but with the printer electronic controls including the Universal Character Set electronics for which I got an Outstanding Contribution Award. I also designed the controls for the 1404 Bill Feed and have patents on that and the UCS. I was responsible for other printer control concepts and designs including the tapeless carriage control concepts, numeric print feature controls, Selective Tape Lister controls, etc.

    In addition, I helped design the Multiply/Divide and Process Overlap for the 1401 as well as some of the power sequencing controls. I had the pleasure of demonstrating the 1401 system at the Banco de Roma in Rome and Milan in June of 1960 with Mason Cunningham and Bill Jones.

    Subsequently, John Haanstra our Division President, myself, Cliff Martin and another individual whose name I can't remember, together architected the 1401 Model G with a concept of Cycle Interleaving. I was given responsibility as only a Senior Associate Engineer to technically manage the overall development and scheduling for the 1401 G and we shipped it ahead of schedule because Haanstra gave me the exact individuals to do the job that I had asked for by name.

    Those were the days when you could develop products expeditiously because upper management was actively involved in a supportive manner to ensure you got what you needed to do so.


    Branscomb, Chuck - cebrans (at) nc dot rr dot com



    From Tom Watson Jr.
    "1401 Program Manager"

    Charles Branscomb's career at IBM spanned 39 years, where he developed and managed several successful IBM products, including the IBM 1401 data processing system, enterprise systems (System/360) and several mid-range systems. Charles joined IBM in the Endicott, NY lab in August 1950 to design punched card handling and unit record products. In 1957 he became Area Manager for accounting machines and directed the development of the IBM 1401. After various executive staff positions, in 1964 he became Director of Computer Assisted Instruction and in 1966, President of the Systems Development Division with eight US labs and six European labs, managing delivery and expansion of the System/360 product line. In 1971 he joined the Corporate Technical Committee investigating future technologies; in 1973 became Director of Engineering, Programming, and Technology; and in 1974 became VP Development and Manufacturing of the General Systems Division in Atlanta, responsible for Systems 32, 34, 38, Series 1, and the IBM PC. In 1983 he became VP of Telecommunication Systems in Communications Product Division in Raleigh. After his retirement in 1986, he consulted full-time to IBM for 3 additional years and then spent more than a dozen years volunteering at North Carolina State University with two adjunct appointments in its College of Engineering. Charles received a MSME from North Carolina State University in 1950.

    I joined IBM in the Endicott, NY lab in August, 1950 after receiving an MSME from North Carolina State University. After a brief engineering training program, worked on a new accounting machine in 1952. Then worked for Larry Wilson who was developing new technology for all aspects of punched card handling and putting out new unit record products. I was still working for Larry when in mid-1957 I was assigned as Manager, accounting machines. After assessing the WWAM, I directed the development of SPACE, which led to the announcement of the 1401 in October, 1959.

    I left the 1401 in Nov, 1960 to become AA to GPD Division President. Then went to San Jose lab as System Manager, Control Systems, in August, 1961. Back to New York in March, 1963 to join staff of Group Executive who had several development divisions ? including most involved in System 360 program.

    I became Director of Computer Assisted Instruction in September, 1964 and then President of Systems Development Division from March, 1966 to September, 1969 when I became Asst. Group Executive. In 1971 joined the Corporate Technical Committee and in 1973 named IBM Director of Engineering, Programming, and Technology.

    One day I received a call from his office saying Mr. Watson would like me to join him at his home for dinner. There were about ten of us (maybe more) from the technical side of IBM there, had a pleasant evening [January 7th 1974] and then Tom had a Hollerith model for each of us brought into the room. I?m surprised that I don?t remember just who was there but I believe Jack Bertram, John Gibson, Eric Bloch, Bob Evans, and Jerry Haddad were included. Tom said he wanted to make sure we understood how much he appreciated everything we did for IBM (of course he said this much more elegantly).

    Spent approx. 7 years in GSD managing Development and Manufacturing before returning to New York in 1981, and then in 1983 to Raleigh, NC (back home) responsible for Telecommunication Systems. Retired in June, 1986.

    his career with IBM, An oral history - 2009, Main 1401 Story


    added July 2009

    He was named distinguished engineering alumnus of North Carolina State University (NCSU) in 1978 and, after retiring from IBM, spent more than a dozen years of heavy volunteering at NCSU with two adjunct appointments in the College of Engineering. He was awarded the Watauga Medal which is the highest recognition NCSU gives their volunteers.

    p.s. ... I had an extremely enjoyable second career at NCSU which I have summarized briefly. ...

    IBM Career
    Charles E. Branscomb

    Joined IBM in August, 1950 after getting my BS & MS degrees in Mechanical Engineering from N.C. State.

    After 4 months in engineering training program, assigned to new accounting machine development ? Transcriber. Later terminated because of complex mechanisms required and limited printer speed.

    Assigned to Larry Wilson?s team focused on new technology and products to handle punched cards. Larry was a statistician who joined IBM from the census bureau to build a special card "sorter". He was very creative and has a great "feel" for good design ? he always said that when you get the right design, it will be simple, easy to build, low cost and reliable. He became not only my boss but my mentor. Much new technology and many products came from his team.

    Early 1957 assigned as manager of accounting machines. WWAM program underway in European Labs. After assessment of WWAM, turned attention to what became the 1401. Directed develop[ment of 1401 from the time there three people on program until it was in production.

    November, 1960, named Administrative Assistant to division President.

    August, 1961, named Systems Manager of Control Systems in San Jose Lab.

    February, 1963, assigned to Group Staff reporting to John Opel (who later became President of IBM). We served Group Executive Vin Learson who had several development divisions most of which were focused upon Sys. 360 developments.

    September, 1964, Named Director of Computer Assisted Instruction. Put out IBM 1500 (small computer with 10 student station capability) for use by researchers in CAI. IBM had about 150 people working on CAI and established research activity with about 8 major universities.

    March, 1966, Named President of Systems Development Division with eight US labs and six European labs. Many challenges in System 360 hardware and software as well as the Time Sharing System (TSS).

    September, 1969, named Asst. Group Executive.

    1971, named member of Corporate Technical Committee. Great change of pace since we spent all our time looking into the future ? technologies (hardware and software), systems, sub-systems, and applications.

    1973, named IBM Director of Engineering, Programming, and Technology.

    1974, named VP of Development and Manufacturing in General Systems Division (located in Atlanta, Ga). This integrated division re-established IBM?s leadership in small to medium systems ? Sys. 32, Sys 34, Sys. 36, Sys. 38 (later with enhancements became A/S 400), Series 1, and finally the IBM PC just before it was reorganized back into other divisions.

    1981, named Asst. Group Executive (back in New York).

    1983, named VP, Telecommunication Systems in Communications Product Division (Finally back home in North Carolina). Named Corporate VP of IBM.

    June, 1986, retired from IBM after 36 years. Actually continued essentially full time consulting for three years after I retired ? much of the time in the PC area.

    e-mail April 19, 2013 - our $2500/mo target for the base 1401 system.
    Robert Since I did not retain any of my 1401 development note or correspondence, I cannot give you specific "facts" to support our $2500/mo target for the base 1401 system. My recollection is that the target was initially suggested by Fran from his experience with unit record customer installations. I used my own experience from the MRU Army installation where I worked. Following is the approximate profile of our office: 3 024 Keypunches, 2 085 Collators, 2 512 Reproducers, 1 Interpreter( do not know #), 3 080 Sorters, 2 405 accounting machines. I do not know the rental value of any of these machines but I felt in 1957 that a 1401 base system starting at $2500 would be very attractive for this installation. Our prime application was processing "morning reports" from all units in Korea each day and producing an updated data base on the 36,000 GI's in Korea each morning. When I first joined the unit, they were operating most of three shifts to achieve this result. My thought process attempted to focus on the customer's installation and applications rather than just the hardware (and plugboards).

    Of course, Fran's experience was with customers in the 1950's when they had 088 Collators, 083 Sorters, 514 Reproducers, 402/407 Accounting Machines, and many a 604 Calculator.

    Market planning had some of this kind of information from the WWAM studies but my recollection is that it was not specific enough to profile "typical" installations. After Shel came on board, he proceeded over a period of time to get much better profile information for both equipment and applications that supported $2500/mo as a very good target for the entry system. The large unit record installations had installed 650's and/or 705's and were not our prime focus.

    I would also emphasize again that, in addition to the monthly rental, simplicity and ease of use was an extremely important focus since almost none of the thousands of unit record users had any experience with stored program computing. I should also note that many installations had a lot of printing - well beyond the feeds and speeds of the punched card machines - so the 600 line per minute 1403 was extremely attractive.

    Since most of the above represents merely my recollections, I suspect it is not too helpful in providing the "facts" that supported the target rental.

    Chuck

    50th Anniversary, CHM
    Charles Branscomb starts 13 minutes in :-))

    Berwin Darrow -
    (H) (607)-748-7102
    (C) (607)-239-1050
    "Bob was responsible for the 1403 hydraulic carriage in the product engineering phase of the program. I told him about [your] hydraulic oil problem."


    Gene Darrow - Darrowehdeld@aol.com

    This is a 1963 announcement picture of Gene Darrow as Manager of Printers,Product Engineering.
    This is a 2002 picture of Gene Darrow.
    This is a 1055 picture of another Endicott Printer Program showing Otto Moneagle (deceased) front row,2nd from left. Otto was heavily involved in the design of the chain for the 1403 Printer.
    This is a 1982 article about Gene Darrow published in the IBM Raleigh Site Bulletin. It describes Gene Darrow's 30 year tenure ( in 1982 ) on Printer Products Programs. It also shows Gene at his desk with parts from various printers he worked on. Also shown is Gene examining a 1403 chain belt with one type slug assembled to it.
    This is a 1963 organization chart for Product Engineering. I believe that the 1403 Printer responsibility was transferred to Product Engineering at this time with Gene Darrow as the manager.
    This is a 1973 picture of John Drejza presenting Gene Darrow his 25 Year Club Certificate.
    This is a 1952 picture of an Endicott group from another printer program having a social evening with their wives. Gene Darrow is shown in the back row,4th from the left. Chuck Branscomb is shown in the back row, 6th from the left.
    . .
    EUGENE H DARROW'S BIO. [as of 2009]
    Age- 83
    IBM Serial No.- 522290
    IBM Service- July 1,1948--May 31,1987
    FAMILY
    Wife Eleanor (deceased in 2008)
    Daughter,Joan,New York City,NY
    Son,William,Fairport,NY
    EDUCATION
    1947-Batchelor Of Science-Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute
    1948-BSME-Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute
    IBM CAREER
    Hired July,1948 for customer engineering training
    Oct. 1948-Nov. 1951
    Assigned to the Washington DC office as a Customer Engineer
    Nov.1951-Sept. 1954
    Transferred to the Endicott Development Lab. First assignment was to assist on the design and release of the 407 Label Writing Device.
    Sept.1954-Sept. 1959
    Manager to assist in the development, release,and product engineering of the 720, 720A, and 730 Wire Printers.
    Sept.1959-May.1963
    Worked with the 1403 Printer development group on the models 2 and 3.Manager responsible for release to production and manufacturing interface.
    May 1963-Jan.1967
    Manager of Product Engineering for 1403,1404,1403 N1 and misellaneous Printers (402,403 407,etc.).
    Jan.1967-Jan.1969
    Assisted with the mechanical development of the 22FP Printer.
    Jan.1969-Aug.1972
    Assigned to the Printer Products Engineering Planning group. Assignments included writing Engineering Specifications for the 5203,5213,3215,2222,2213 as well as interfaceing with the Printer user groups.
    Aug.1972-Feb.1975
    Assigned to the LYNX D Printer development group as manager of plans and control. Responsible for plans,budgets,LYNX documentation, parts ordering,early system hardware requirements,and interface activity with all LYNX using systems.
    Feb.1975-Apr.1976
    Manager of the LYNX D Printer development program. Responsible for the mechanical and electronic design,test and release.
    Apr.1976-Apr.1977
    Assigned as manager of Product Engineering for all LYNX printers.
    Apr.1977-Aug.1978
    Assigned to the Printer Products Planning group responsible for the engineering planning for the Nagold 1 Printer along with staff and technical duties as required to assist the Printer Products Products Manager.
    Aug.1978-Mar.1979
    Assigned to the technical staff of John Keffer,Printer Products Product manager.
    Mar.1979-May.1980
    Transferred to Raleigh N.C. as Product Engineering manager for the 3287,3289,3767,and3288 Printers.
    May 1980-Apr. 1981
    Mechanical Packaging and release manager for the TAMA Printer program.
    Apr.1981-Sept.1984
    Mechanical development manager for the 3268 Printer.
    1984-1985
    Manager for mechanical development for the 4214 Printer.This involved outsourcing the development to a vendor in New Hampshire.
    Jan.1985-june1985
    Responsible for the transfer of all of raleigh printer development and Product Engineering to Charlotte.N.C.
    June1985-June 1987
    Assigned to a communication product which ultimately became the 3748. My responsibility was to act as liaison between Raleigh,Boeblingen,Germany and France.This involved a 6 month assignment in Boeblingen.
    May 31,1987
    Retired after 38 years with IBM, 35 of which involved Printer Products.


    John Drejza info from Gene Darrow


    Promotion
    Resume 336 KB 1403 Hammer Report 1,000 KB


    Karl Ganzhorn
    Prof. Dr.rer.nat. Dr.-Ing. E.h.

    Karl Ganzhorn

    Gluckstr. 1, 71065 Sindelfingen
    Tel.: 07031-812022 /Fax:-812024
    e-mail:Karl.Ganzhorn@t-online.de

    CURRICULUM VITAE
    (Abstract, Status 3/2007)

    Born: April 25, 1921 in Sindelfingen, Germany. Married, 2 Sons.
    Professional Education: Physics, (PhD in Theoretical Physics, Univ. Stuttgart, 1952).
    Professional Career:

    IBM Germany (1952 - 1986),
    Member of the Management Board of IBM Germany (1963 -1986),
    Honorary Professor at University of Karlsruhe, Information Technology (1960 - 1987).
    International Career in IBM
    (additional):
    Director of IBM Laboratories Germany, Austria and Sweden (1963 - 1971),
    Member of the (corporate) IBM Science Advisory Committee (1972 - 1975),
    Director for Science and Technology in IBM Europe (1973 - 1975),
    Vice President of IBM Systems Communication Division (1975 - 1978).
    External Scientific Appointments:
    President of the German Physical Society (1969-1971),
    Member of the Science Council of the Federal Republic of Germany (1978-1987),
    Member of the Executive Committee of the European Physical Society (1971-1973),
    Chairman / Member of the Advisory Boards of 3 Max-Planck-Institutes:
    MPI Heisenberg Inst. Physics, Astrophysics, Exterrestrical Physics Munich (1972-1991),
    MPI Metal Research Stuttgart (1965 - permanent Hon. Chairman),
    MPI Solid State Research Stuttgart (1975-1989)
    Member of the Advisory Board at the Ministry for Science and Arts,
    Bavaria, Munich, (1987-1993),
    Member of United Nations
    "Advisory Committee for Science and Technology for Development", New York (1987-1992).
    External Industrial Appointments:
    Member of the Board of Directors of
    - DIN, German Institute for Standards (1980-1985),
    - MAN Roland Druckmaschinen AG Offenbach/ Augsburg (1984-1992),
    - LENZE AG El. Drive Technology, Hameln (1986-1997).
    Science/Technology Advisor of the General Management of TÜV (Techn.Supervisory
    Agency) Baden/Wuerttemberg (1989-1996)
    Personal Appointments:
    Dr. honoris causa, University Stuttgart (1978),
    Comptour Cross of the Federal Republic of Germany (1982),
    Honorary Senator of the Technical University of Munich (1982),
    Fellow IEEE, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, New York (1987),
    Golden Honorary Medal of the City of Sindelfingen (1992).
    15 Books
    (9 as Author / Co-Author, 6 as Editor)
    74 Scientific Publications,
    49 Patents
    .
    John Haanstra
    after 1961

    Left is Robert Garner,
    Right is Bruce Haanstra, son of John Haanstra
    From Chuck Chuck Branscomb, 1401 program manager, who knew John Haanstra

    Robert

    I assume you recall my story about John from the "1401 story". In early 1961 when I had moved to division HQS, John was division VP of Development. He asked me to go with him on a Friday visit to the Kingston, NY Lab (about 2 hour drive) and all the way up and back he probed me on how the 1401 handled Input/Output. Monday AM his secretary called me what I did to her boss on Friday. After the weekend John had showed up with some 14 to 18 Executary "belts" (The IBM OPD recorder used belts instead of tapes giving random access to recordings) to be transcribed. They represented the design of a multiplexor front end for the 1401.

    John was not only a powerhouse intellectually but he was powerful physically as well. I still vividly remember being in a meeting with John and the VP of Manufacturing for the division (Bud Thue) where John was demanding that 1401 production for the first year be doubled. He had a habit of cupping his hand and pounding on the conference table - I believe the room actually shook when he did that. John won and production was doubled.

    You have got some good insights into the Development area activity after Honeywell announced the H200. It is unfortunate that Jim Desell is no longer living. Jim was Systems Engineering Manager in the Eastern Region when H200 was announced and he could have personally provided the Marketing division activity. When he found out that Endicott engineers were skeptical that Liberator would work, Jim found a way to get into a Honeywell customer demonstration and saw that he did in fact work. He then went to Endicott to make sure there was no misunderstanding and demand that development respond. I was on Vin Learson's staff while this was going on and remember interacting with Jim about H200 and Liberator but I do not remember the specifics.

    About a dozen years later Jim and I became very good friends in the General Systems Division where he was head of Marketing and I was head of Development and Manufacturing. As I think you know GSD re-established IBM leadership in the middle to low end of the product line. I read recently that IBM world wide sold over 250,000 System 32/34/36/38s.

    I did not mean for this to get so lengthy - I hope some of it is of interest to you.

    Chuck


    Ingram, Jim - jim-i (at) att dot net

    1401 Project Manager


    At CHM 2009

    Joined the Endicott, NY Lab of IBM in Feb, 1950 after obtaining an MSEE from Purdue. Worked on the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine, from early development through early production stages, responsible for the magnetic drum circuits. Also did several short term planning/circuit design assignments on ways for IBM to use electronics in other areas.
    Starting in late l954, led an engineering group seeking to develop machines for card processing, accounting, and card and printer I/O for large computers. Participated in the WWAM meeting in Germany from late May through early July, 1955. In mid 1957 was assigned to the 1401, then in its early planning stages, and as the program progressed became the project manager. Left the 1401 program in late 1962 after a significant number of machines had been shipped and programs to add additional functions, including Additional Memory and adding the 729 magnetic tape drives and the 1405 hard disk drive, were completed or well underway.
    In early 1963 worked for IBM?s Nordic Lab in Sweden as manager of the 1070 Process Communication System. This system was transferred in early 1964 to IBM?s San Jose Lab, along with several of the Nordic Lab engineers. It was announced as part of the 360 announcement in April, 1964, and shipments started about a year later.
    In early 1966 moved to IBM?s Raleigh Lab as Plans and Control manager. Worked on development of IBM?s Point of Sale equipment from 1969 until retirement in 1987.



    "1401 marketing lead"

    "Dawn of a New Era"

    2009
    <
    Sheldon Jacob's career at IBM spanned 38 years, where he was a Planning Manager for many successful midrange computing products. He joined IBM as a Sales Representative in the Chicago Downtown sales office in 1952 and moved to Endicott, NY in 1957 as a planner for the IBM 1401 Data Processing System, where he established preannouncement field case studies and classes and played a critical role developing a business case to support the 1401's announcement. In 1960, he took a Planning Manager position for midrange products in San Jose, including the early development of the 1401-compatible IBM 1440 Data Processing System. In 1962 he became a consultant in Corporate Marketing in Armonk, NY evaluating low-end products and outside proposals. In 1965, he returned to San Jose working on products for new markets. He then did various planning jobs for Direct Access Storage Devices (DASD), including the IBM 3340. In 1982, when IBM was hit with law suits by competitors, he was assigned as Litigation Support Manager in the General Products Division. He retired from IBM in 1990 and spends his time doing a variety of volunteer activities. Shel graduated from University of Illinois in 1952 with a BS in Accounting.

    I joined IBM in 1952 in the Chicago Downtown sales office. I moved to Endicott in the Fall of 1957 as a planner in the Glendale Lab. Shortly thereafter, I was assigned to an advanced accounting machine project. It evolved into the SPACE program, Stored Program Accounting and Calculating Equipment, which was announced October 5, 1959.

    I became the Planning Manager responsible for the business aspects. I did field case studies to help finalize the design objectives, set up preannouncement classes to get reactions and suggestions from IBM field personnel. I spent a lot of time negotiating the five year forecast which was pivotal in developing a business case to support announcement. As announcement neared, I worked with marketing in preparing for the 1401 announcement via the first national closed circuit TV release.
    After announcement, I was transferred to San Jose as the Planning Manager for Unit Record Systems and charged with making sure the 11LC, eventually announced as the 1440, was programming compatible with the 1401.
    In 1962 I joined Corporate Marketing in Armonk evaluating low end products and outside proposals. I returned to San Jose in 1965 doing various planning jobs in DASD. When we were hit with law suits by our competitors, I was assigned as GPD Litigation Support Manager. I managed the document reviews by the plaintiffs within IBM as well as our reviews of their documents at their locations. A major challenge was explaining the IBM culture and products to our attorneys.
    I retired in 1990 and spend my time in a variety of volunteer activities.

    in April, 2013, there was considerable question about how the target rent or lease of the upcoming 1401 was set at $2500. Chuck Branscom answered here and Robert Garner as Shel this " Shel --> Do you recall how the $2500 target was set? " below is Shel Jacobs' answer."


    Robert,

    I visited many accounts and focused on those that were running out of capability to keep up with the demands of their unit record equipment and were faced with adding another tabulator. These accounts usually had 3 403s or 2 407s with summary punches and a single calculator - either a 602A or a 604. The 403s were in the range of 500 points and the 407s were about 800 points. I don't remember the points of the punches or calculators but the installations started in the 2000 to 2200 point realm. The target of $2500 was a more attractive alternative to adding another tabulator since it took up less space, offered faster card reading and printing. It also had the potential of requiring fewer operators. The target also considered the competitive alternatives. I can't recall what was already announced there were some heavy hitters trying to get into the market. I remember Remington Rand, GE, and RCA.

    I made extensive use of our account profile inventory lists. I could find out how many accounts we had by the number of tabulators and calculators. I was able to identify market potentials by installation point size. I used this data to create a planning estimate of the of the forecast which was the basis I used in challenging the low pre-announcement forecast.

    I'm sorry I can't be more specific but too many years have gone by.

    Shel

    50th Anniversary, CHM
    Shel Jacobs starts 1 hour 30 minutes in :-))


    The marvelous software [AutoCoder and FORTRAN] 1401 team that I led consisted of:
    - Stan Smillie, a teenager that I found at the Bronx High School of Science
    - John Wertheim, whom I began training at Republic Aviation
    - Gary Mokotoff whom I recruited from another group at IBM
    - Len Haines, a mathematician, who first proposed doing serial compilation on the 650.
    - and myself, with ten years of programming and systems experience,
    at the time: CPC, 650, 650 RAMAC, SOAP (an optimizing assembler)


    Don Manning w photos - dmanning8 at stny dot rr dot com
    no photo of Don yet preliminary, unofficial info
    1403 - mod 1&2
    1403 - mod 3

    Got to thinking -- my cartridge may be a development prototype - I don't really know. A lot of my parts are various development pieces - never got released.
    • Back Printers (drive paper into ribbon/type)
      • 1403-1/2 600 lpm w/48 character set
        chain velocity - 90 "/sec hammer velocity - 107 "/sec parallel motion - hammer on two leaf springs - actuated directly by armature casket on pedestal
      • 1403-3 1100 lpm w/48 character set
        train velocity - 206 "/sec hammer face velocity - 210 "/sec pivoted hammer actuated by armature through a pushrod casket on a pedestal
      • 1403-N1 1100 lpm w/48 character set
        same as 1403-3 fully enclosed (except for rear paper access) for improved acoustics
    • Front Printer (drive type into ribbon and paper - typewriter like)
      3211 2000 lpm w/48 character set
    Then later many more back printers using a band instead of a chain or train.
    I came into the 1403 design and development department in 1/1958. The 1403 was already well underway at that time. I got to assist with hammer unit, print quality, ribbon smudge, stacking, etc. evaluations/improvements prior to and during Product Test phase. The people involved were (as I remember):
    • Jim Troy - Glendale Lab Mgr - Endicott, NY
    • Jonas Dayger - Printer Products Development Mgr. (several serial and line printers were in development)
    • J. Mason Cunningham - 1403 Development Mgr.
    • John Drejza - developed hammer unit and probably more (later did the Tape Lister development for these printers)
    • Otto Moneagle - lead cartridge engineer plus other stuff like stacking paper
    • Al Dowd - swing casting, translator frame, ribbon guide
    • ??? - tractors (maybe Otto), forms drive
    • ??? - hydraulic unit
    • several people on covers, control panel, etc.
    • Electrical manager was Fred Shaff (I think). Printer itself had no printing logic (I guess we said it was a slave).
    After the 1403-1/2 was announced and primary control was shifted to Product Engineering (Jim Walsh, Gene Darrow, etc.) our group started on the 1403-3 in earnest. That is when I became the lead engineer on the 1403-3 hammer unit. Don Rose designed with me. Actually I designed and built the first train (it was a 3 array, 48 character set unit that I actually still have). Due to worries about ribbon fiber build up between the slugs we opted for monorail/chair style slugs that we actually used. The same managerial people were involved.
    I myself stayed in printer development in Endicott until I retired in 1993. Lots of opportunities to relocate to Raleigh, Charlotte, Tucson, San Jose, Boulder, etc. Family was here and I still like the place!

    a list of Don Manning's 1403 Ref Material


    McCarthy, Justin - jhmccarthy -at- aol dot com ; mccarthy -at- killcb dot com -

    I was a member of the 1401 Product Development Team. I was involved in the development of the first transisterized units in the Endicott Glendale Lab - the PECU (Print Edit Control Unit) & TAM (Transister Accountng Machine) prior to the 1401 team being pulled together under Chuck Branscomb.
    During the pre-1401 era, I worked for George Mitchell, and Claud Pyle under Jim Ingrahm. When the 1401 team was pulled together under Chuck, I worked first for Rus Raleigh and then Joe Conzola under Jim Ingrahm, who inturn reported to Chuck. Although I never reported directly to Francis O. Underwood, I worked closely with him & his department and kept in touch and visited him when he moved to Los Gatos, where he became Father of The Floppy Disk Drive on his little educational system.
    I have names and org charts from even back then. Although, always a peon at the bottom, I always felt as one of the important team members. We all worked 3 rotating shifts, 6 days a week, and seldom, if ever, complained. I was involved with the 1401 base design, debug, and release to manufacturing in Endicott. Like John Pokoski, I worked in Building 41 supporting manufacturing build, debug and shpments of 1401 customer shipments. I spend almost a year in San Jose as a 1401 base system support person during the development and release of the 1405. I also spent my share of time supporting IBM CE's in the field, before joining the 1440 / 1460 / 360 Model 30 groups.
    I have so much 1401 memorbilia in the crawl space up stairs, and plan to bring it all down someday when I retire and write down my IBM experiences. I will gladly share any / all with you and the team in CA. I have loged the date of 9/22/2009 in my little book, and plan to be there even if you guys won't let me in. John Pokoski and I have discussed getting the old 1401 development team together for many years, and now we have purpose.
    Although I live in Boca Raton, FL, I really want to handle pullng those, still available, together for such a gathering. An example is George Ahearn, who I hope is still alive, and right under your nose in Los Gatos. Incidentally I worked for George during my stay in San Jose working on the 1405.

    Justin McCarthy has made a 1401 Family - Development, Product Engineering and Support Teams chart converted from XCELL, (updated Dec 14, 2009)


    Justin sent the following, which is being parked here for safe keeping until further processing
    In 1956 we all in Dept 280 (including Dick Case) were working on the first units to incorporate transistors into new units that were considered Unit Record (ie: 407) replacements. One was called PECU (Print Edit Control Unit) and another was TAM (Transistor Accounting Machine). In the workers eyes, Fran Underwood's SPACE (Stored Programming Accounting Calculating Equipment) archetecture, and the transister work on TAM folded together to become the 1401. This would be better addressed by Fran, Jim Ingram, and Chuck Branscomb, as I was so mired in the details that my perception may be some what off base.
    However, most of us working on the TAM unit, moved to the 1401 development team, somewhere around mid 1957. Some of the engineers transferred to the 1410 and some moved to Poughkeepsie. I lost track of Dick in 1958. Jim Ingram may have additional details, as I believe Dick reported through the chain of command to him.


    Mokotoff, Gary - gary at mokotoff dot net ,

    Group Picture
    I joined IBM in June 1959 and was assigned to the 1401 project. My first programming application was to write multiply and divide subroutines in machine language because multiply/divide hardware was an optional feature in the initial announcement of the 1401. I then wrote SPS-1 and then SPS-2. John Wertheim and I then wrote 1401 Autocoder and then a team of people wrote 1401 FORTRAN.

    The group was broken up in 1961 or 1962. I went to an IBM think-tank type group and was drafted into the Army in January 1963. After completing basic training at Fort Dix, New Jersey, I was assigned to the data processing department at Fort Dix where I remained for the duration of my Army carreer. They had IBM 407 accounting machines with plans to install a Univac 1101. The 1101 was a disaster. I realized that technically it was not a computer because it could not simulate a Turing machine. When they heard I had 1401 experience, they cancelled the Univac and ordered the 1401. I wrote most of the programs for the base (lots of interesting stories; made SP-5 in two years). I don?t ever recall programming for a disc 1401 but did use card and tape systems.

    A milestone for me "Exactly 50 years ago today?June 29, 1959?I joined IBM as a ..."

    During an e-mail exchange amongst many folks, about IBM card usage - Gary wrote:

    This dialogue reminds me of an old IBM joke:

    Do you know how they buried Tom Watson Sr.?

    Answer: Face down, nine edge first!


    Palmer, Jack -
    Jack Palmer was manager of the 1401/1620 systems software effort in the early 1960s
    He is also "John H. Palmer", co-author of "IBM's Early Computers" and "IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems" published by MIT Press.
    Brief Evolution of IBM 1401 SPS and Autocoder

    Papo, Maurice

    Early Portrait

    Recent Portrait
    - WWAM Logic, IBM Eng. Symposium , Paris Jan 9, 1957 - 900 K Bytes
    - Oral History - Larry Saphire interviewing - 8.8 MBytes

    MAURICE PAPO

    Education

    Dr. Maurice Papo graduated in France from "Ecole Polytechnique" (1951) and "Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications" (1954). He also holds shorter course degrees from Brookings Institute Washington, INSEAD-Stanford, and Centre des Hautes Etudes de l'Armement

    IBM

    He worked 35 years in IBM executive positions in France, Europe and the USA, primarily R&D Director, but also World Director for Standards, World Director of Product Line, Director of Commercial Relations, Industry Relations and Patents, and chief Scientist. He established and managed a new IBM R&D Laboratory in La Gaude, France. Most of his R&D work has been in the fields of Computers and Telecommunications in which he has held a significant number of international patents. He has participated in most IBM strategic and organizational studies involving its multinational evolution.

    After retiring from IBM he worked as independent senior consultant. He has been very active in the Executive Boards of National Engineering Societies, has founded and chaired several National Engineering Societies, was Vice Chairman of the European Industrial Research Management Association, and member of several Universities Scientific Advisory Boards.

    IEEE

    Vice-President Regional Activities (Member of the Board of Directors and Executive Committee)

    Chair of RAB Nominations & Appointments Committee

    Chair IEEE Nominations & Appointments Committee

    Chair of the President's Consult Group

    IEEE Secretary (Member of the Board of Directors and Executive Committee)

    Member at Large Education Activities Board

    Member at Large Publication Activities Board

    Director Region 8 (Europe, Africa, Middle-East)

    Chair France Section

    Awards

    IBM Outstanding Invention Award

    IEEE Fellow1987

    IEEE Millenium Medal

    IEEE 2000 Larry Wilson Transnational Award

    IEEE Haraden Pratt Medal

    "Officer" grade in the French Legion of Honneur for outstanding services to the Nation

    "Commandeur" grade in the French "Ordre National du Merite

    "Commandeur" grade in the French "Palmes Academiques" for outstanding services to the National Education)

    "Knight" grade in the Monaco "Saint Charles" Order


    Short Form

    Mr. Papo graduated in France from "Ecole Polytechnique" and "Ecole Nationale Superieure des Telecommunications", as well as from the "INSEAD" in Fontainebleau and the Brookings Institute in Washington. He joined IBM in 1954 and worked 35 years in executive R&D positions on both sides of the Atlantic ocean, with responsibilities in France, Europe and the USA, including the setting-up and management of the IBM France R&D Laboratory in La Gaude near Nice. He has also occupied international IBM position in the management of Product Line, Marketing and Standards. Most of his R&D work has been in the field of Computers and Communications in which he has held more than 75 international patents. He has now retired from IBM and is working as an independent consultant. He has been frequently retained in Monaco where he has consulted for the Princess Grace Hospital, the Police, and the Palace of HSH Rainier III. He has been very active in the Executive Boards of National Engineering Societies, has founded and chaired several Regional Engineering Societies, and was Vice-Chairman of the European Industrial Research Management Association. He has also been a member of several Universities Scientific Advisory Boards. He was Vice President Regional Activities and member of the Board of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.


    Pokoski, John - johnpokoskiatcomcastdotnet


    1959


    2009
    IBM BACKGROUND
    My first job out of college (June 1959) was on the 1401 project at Endicott?s Glendale Lab.
    Fran Underwood was my immediate supervisor and Jim Ingram "held my card". At that point, the basic machine had been designed but the optional features were still on the drawing boards. The first engineering model was in the process of being constructed and debugged. I was green as grass and my very first assignments involved learning the system, drafting, and technical writing.
    Soon I was involved with debugging the system, particularly the second model, which also included optional features, and generating the necessary engineering changes. My prime responsibility was "expanded arithmetic" (multiply/divide). Later, I was involved with M/D redesign and testing, and other options such as process overlap and Sterling arithmetic.
    I generated documentation for the manual writers and taught several classes for customer engineers. As the system progressed, I mentored the testers on the 1401 lines in Endicott (North St.) and later helped the production line get started in San Jose. I also made numerous field trips to aid customer engineers stuck on tough bugs and to install major engineering changes.
    After three years on the 1401 I spent a year on development of an optical card reader after which I left IBM for academia. This was an exciting time in my professional life and the wide range of experiences that I had at IBM was invaluable to me in my teaching career.
    BIOGRAPHY
    1401 Memories-Endicott
    A selection of 1401 development letters and org charts

    Stanley Smillie - by Gary Mokotoff
    Stan Smillie only worked as a summer employee at IBM in 1960 and 1961. He was the author of the Arith phases of 1401 FORTRAN II. He graduated Bronx High School of Science in 1961.

    He was a genius. He discovered the seven-character Store B Register command on the 1401. The command was undocumented until he recognized the value of this instruction. He was a master at using the chaining feature of the 1401, that is, issuing computer instructions with missing operands and taking advantage of the contents of the A- and B-register values left by the previous instruction. Anyone who reads the coding of the Arith phases of FORTRAN II will see his craftsmanship.

    When he got out of the Air Force in 1967, he was contacted by Gary Mokotoff, whom he met in the 1401 group. Gary was in the process of leaving IBM to form a software company. In 1968 the two started Data Usage Corp for the purpose of developing systems software for the IBM System 360 Model 20. Their only product was Documatic, a program that documented programs written in RPG. It converted RPG programs to English-language documentation. ...

    In 1987, Stan was diagnosed with lung cancer (he was a non-smoker but his father died of cancer at a young age) and he died in May 1988 at the age of 46.


    Swanson, Jan - died 2010 - jsbarris at aol dot com

    full bio in HTML 20 KBytes, or WORD 857 KBytes.
    The 1401 Reference Manual Story by Jan Swanson, 7 KBytes


    Jan Swanson Loper Barris
    Lead Writer
    IBM 1401 Reference Manual

     

    EDUCATION: BS - Syracuse University - Business Administration - Marketing

    1956 to 1979 C INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES

    Responsibilities ranged from one-on-one customer service (systems engineering) and training of such customers as Eastman Kodak and Bausch and Lomb to product planning and development of major IBM systems starting with the 1401 and ending with the System 38.

    • Installed data processing systems in individual customer sites; and trained DP managers and operators in the successful use of the equipment. Taught group customer classes in control panel wiring, machine operation and programming.

    • Wrote hardware and software manuals for users of the IBM 1401, 1440, and 1410 Data Processing Systems. Planned and supervised preparation of same type of manuals for the entry-level IBM System/360.

    • Wrote hardware and software manuals used by approximately 30,000 users of the IBM 1401, 1440, and 1410 Data Processing Systems. Supervised preparation of same type of manuals for the entry-level IBM System/360.


    June 7, 2010 - George Ahearn reports that Jan died last week.
    Pictures of Jan at the November 2009 reunion are Table 1.


    Underwood, Fran - Born 6/16/1926 - Died 9/25/2011

    Passport
    1967
    Designer of the 1401
    50th Anniversary, CHM
    Fran starts 50 minutes in :-))
    - Interview, June 25, 2008
    - Career at IBM
    - Memories and Practical Jokes
    from Mitch Marcus
    - other Talents, Hobbies
    - Remembrances
    - 2nd Bio for CHM
    - 1401 - Design Philosophy

    Francis Underwood's career at IBM spanned 30 years of design engineering, including chief architect of the IBM 1401 Data Processing System, co-designer of the IBM 1800 Data Acquisition and Control System, and co-inventor of the forerunner to the floppy disk. He began his IBM career in 1948 at the Endicott NY lab as a customer engineer, where his training included hands-on assembly of punched card accounting machines. He was promoted to a design engineer, teaching switching and logic design classes.

    In 1956, he joined Endicott's Advanced Systems Development Department (ASDD) and in 1957 was asked to jump-start IBM's transistorized accounting machine development. In early 1958, based on his Stored-Program Accounting and Calculating Equipment (SPACE) design, he became chief architect of the IBM 1401, announced in October 1959 and one of IBM's most successful and early transistorized products. He transferred to the San Jose lab in 1961 to co-develop the IBM 1800 process control computer and then, in the Instructional Systems Development Department (ISDD), an audio/visual instructional terminal with a forerunner to the floppy disk.

    In 1972, after two years out of IBM at a startup firm, he returned to San Jose to coordinate engineering development of the IBM 3800 laser Printer. Francis retired from IBM in 1980 to start an engineering consulting firm designing tools and machines for small manufacturing businesses and metal recovery plants. In 1988 he joined an international firm designing ski lifts for 15 years. Fran was an avid Stearman aerobatic biplane pilot, a watercolor artist and holds six US IBM patents.


    Wertheim, John - amenschw at aol dot com

    I joined IBM in 1957 in the Research Division and programmed the IBM 305 Ramac. In 1959 I transferred to Applied Programming in NYC, working for Arnie Wolf and Jack Palmer on 1401 programs, including, first, the Tape-to-Printer Utility, and then co-developing 1401 Autocoder with Gary Mokotoff.

    In 1961, I transferred to Endicott, working, first, for Jim Frame, and, later, for Earl Wheeler on IBM 360 software. I managed the programming efforts for BPS, BOS, and later for TOS and DOS operating systems.

    I'll fill in more data later. I retired in 1989.

    I treasure the memories of our days working together, and I never could understand why IBM paid me to have such fun - those truly are the good old days.


    list from GENE DARROW (contact info removed for now)
    DON MANNING 
        CONTRIBUTION 
            -MECH. ENG. 
            -HAMMER UNIT 
            -CHAIN AND TRAIN 
            -MAY HAVE SOME EARLY PARTS AND MANUALS 
      
    ROBERT GIBSON 
        CONTRIBUTION 
            -NOT DIRECTLY ASSOCIATED WITH THE 1403 DEVELOPMENT 
            -HAS A GOOD MEMORY OF EVENTS AND WAS PRINTER PRODUCTS PLANNING MANAGER 
             FOLLOWING THE INITIAL DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITY OF THE 1403 PRINTER. 
      
    ROBERT GREAVES  
        CONTRIBUTION 
            -DURING THE EARLY 1403 DEVELOPMENT,HE WAS ASSISTANT TO THE LAB MGR. 
            -NO HANDS ON DEVELOPMENT EFFORT 
      
    JIM WALSH     
        CONTRIBUTION 
            -MECHANICAL ENGINEER- 3RD LEVEL PRODUCT ENGINEERING MGR. DURING A PORTION 
             OF THE 1403 PROGRAM. 
      
    TIM HAYES (SEE NOTE BELOW) 
                 -TIM WAS A MECHANICAL ENGINEER ON THE PROGRAM. 
      
    FOR YOUR INFO,THE TWO KEY ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS ON THE PROGRAM ,
    AS I REMEMBER WERE JAMES BARCOMB AND FRED SCHAAF.  
       BOTH OF THEM PASSED AWAY WITHIN THE PAST YEAR. 
    


    Software chart and offices

    ProgSysEndicottOrg1963-.jpg

    ProgSysEndicottFloor1961-.jpg

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